ẺͺԴҧäͧس
(سҴҡҷسԴ : ; 2540)
 
÷ͺäԴҧҧäͧس ҧҡ÷ͺ ҧҡ
 
÷ͺʹ سҤӵͺ "١ͧ" 觷ҵͧè »áǤسԴ ֡ лԺѵԵҧ㹪Եԧ
 
ẺͺѲ Ҥ͹ҧҹ ֡ҵҧͧäԴẺҧä СäԴẺҧҡҹͧѡԨ ШԵᾷ ֡Ҷ֧ԷԾŢͧäԴ ;ĵԡͧ
 
سẺͺ ¡Ţ㹪ͧҧ˹һ¤Т ҧѧ仹
 
Ҥسһ¤ҧҧ
Դԧ Ţ 1
Դǹ˭ Ţ 2
١ͼԴ ͵ѴԹ Ţ 3
١ǹ˭ Ţ 4
١ԧ Ţ 5
 
سͧͺ "١ͧ" سèеͺس֡蹹»á
 
شʧͧͷͺ ҡҤسԴѵѵҧ
ҡҤس "è" Դҧ
 
............ 1. ѹԵ֧ͧ ѹҨШѴáѺѹ
............ 2. ѹ繤ԴŧͷҡҡԴ ͺǡѺʶҹóҧ
............ 3. ѹ֡ ûԺѵԵҧ ҡûԺѵԵҧǡѹ
............ 4. ѹ þٴ֧稷ѹҴѧ͹ҧ 觹Դ繨ԧ
............ 5. ҡѹӢͺӤѭҡ ѹ֡͹龺稤˭ ЪԵѹСҡ
............ 6. ѹͧʵ
............ 7. ѹѧŵͧ
............ 8. ҡѹ繵ͧӧҹѹͺ ѹзշش ¡äԴ֧ѹǡ
............ 9. š ·դ§ 2 Դ Ф
.......... 10. պҧ觷 Դ鹡Ѻѹ ѹ 駵仩ѹѺ觷 繡êšѹ
.......... 11. ѹ öӷء觷ҵͧ ҡӹҨͧ (will power) ҧҡ
.......... 12. ѹ⪤ҧ˹觤
.......... 13. ѹ֡ (͹ҧ) еͧҧʹ¡͹ ֧ж ͧ繤դس
.......... 14. ѹͧ÷ҷ (challenges) ҧ 觷ҡ ͡ʷѹ鷴ͺͧ ¹
.......... 15. ѹԴշҧ͡Դ·ҧ շҧ͡١§ҧҹ 㹡÷᷺ء觷ءҧ
.......... 16. ѹͧҧҧ
.......... 17. ѹԴҷءѡͧͧ
.......... 18. ѹҼըԧ
.......... 19. ѹѡФԴ֧ͧ ʹյҡͧ
.......... 20. ͩѹͧ༪ԭѺҹҡӺҡ ѹԴ֧觷Դѧ㨷ѹշش
.......... 21. ѹѡШѴ ˹鹾ǡǡѺѹ;ǡ͵ҹѹ
.......... 22. ҧ駩ѹԴ ҩѹͧҧ觺ҧҧԴҧҡ ѹз觹Դ
.......... 23. ҡѹѺѺ 㹡ɳӤѭ ѹ֡ ФԴҵ仩ѹҧҹ
.......... 24. ѹ ҧդöҹ㨤
.......... 25. ѹ褹ǹ
.......... 26. ͵ͧ༪ԭѺ˵ءóҾ ѹѡФԴҧͺͺ ҨШѴáѺѹҧô
.......... 27. ѹ繤ͺͧҧͧѴԹ ҧҧ
.......... 28. ѹ¹ѧҡ 觷ѹѧѡԴ
.......... 29. ѹ ҩѹ觷 觷 Դ鹡Ѻѹ
.......... 30. ѹ դöͧ͹Ҥǧ˹
 
ԸաѴšʴͺ
Ըա÷ҧʶԵԡԨ ¹ѴẺἹͧäԴǢͧѺäԴҧä СäԴҧҧ͡ 6 ¡âҧҧ 繡§ӴѺ¤鷴ͺ ¨Ѵ¡ 6 ѧŢͷͺ͹ ԸաѴ سǡṹسह˹Ţͷͺͧء ͹سѧͧʹ С¶֧ ¹͸Ժѧ سҨоѧࡵͧ 2 á ǡѺäԴҧҧä з 4 ѧ ǡѺäԴҧҧ
 
ѡèѴáѺ (Emotional Coping)
.......... 1.ѹԵ֧ͧ ѹҨШѴáѺѹ
.......... 7.ѹѧŵͧ
.......... 13.ѹ֡ (͹ҧ) еͧҧʹ¡͹ ֧жҵͧ繤դس
.......... 19.ѹѡФԴ֧ͧ ʹյҡͧ
.......... 25.ѹ褹ǹ
.......... ṹ
 
ѡѴáѺĵԡ (Behavioral Coping)
.......... 2.ѹ繤ԴŧͷҡҡԴ ͺǡѺʶҹóҧ
.......... 8.ҡѹ繵ͧӧҹѹͺ ѹзշش ¡äԴ֧ѹǡ
.......... 14.ѹͧ÷ҷµҧ 觷ҡ ͡ʷѹ鷴ͺͧ¹
.......... 20.ͩѹͧ༪ԭѺҹҡӺҡ ѹԴ֧觷Դѧ㨷ѹշش
......... 26.͵ͧ༪ԭѺ˵ءóҾ ѹѡФԴҧͺͺҨШѴáѺѹҧô
.......... ṹ
 
äԴẺ 2 ش (Categorical Thinking)
.......... 3.ѹ֡ ûԺѵԵҧ ҡûԺѵԵҧǡѹ
.......... 9.š ·դ§ 2 Դ Ф
.......... 15.ѹԴշҧ͡Դ·ҧ շҧ͡١§ҧҹ 㹡÷᷺ء觷ءҧ
.......... 21.ѹѡШѴ ˹鹾ǡǡѺѹ;ǡ͵ҹѹ
.......... 27.ѹ繤ͺͧҧͧѴԹ ҧҧ
.......... ṹ
 
äԴẺ⪤ҧ (Superstitious Thinking)
.......... 4.ѹ þٴ֧稷ѹҴѧ ͹ҧ觹Դ繨ԧ
.......... 10.պҧ觷 Դ鹡Ѻѹ ѹ 駵仩ѹѺ觷繡êšѹ
.......... 16.ѹͧҧҧ
.......... 22.ҧ駩ѹԴ ҩѹͧҧ觺ҧҧԴҧҡ ѹз觹Դ
.......... 28.ѹ¹ѧҡ 觷ѹѧѡԴ
.......... ṹ
 
äԴẺ觹͡˹ͻҡóҵ (Esoteric Thinking)
.......... 6.ѹͧʵ
..........12.ѹ⪤ҧ˹觤
.......... 18.ѹҼըԧ
.......... 24.ѹ ҧդöҹ㨤
.......... 30.ѹ դöͧ͹Ҥǧ˹
.......... ṹ
 
ͧšҧ͹Ѵ (Naive Optimism)
.......... 5.ҡѹӢͺӤѭҡ ѹ֡͹龺稤˭ ЪԵѹСҡ
.......... 11.ѹ öӷء觷ҵͧ ҡӹҨͧ (will power) ҧҡ
.......... 17.ѹԴҷءѡͧͧ
.......... 23.ҡѹѺѺ 㹡ɳӤѭ ѹ֡ФԴҵ仩ѹҧҹ
.......... 29.ѹ ҩѹ觷 觷 Դ鹡Ѻѹ
.......... ṹ
 
ԸդԴṹäԴҧҧä
ǡṹͧǡѺäԴҧä 2 á ѡèѴáѺ СѡѴáѺĵԡ ǹ 3 Ѵ 30 繵ǵ ź¤ṹСͧ 3 Ǩ֧Ҥṹ 5 ѹ ǹͧšҧ͹Ѵ ͧӤṹ ˵ؼŷ͸Ժ·ѧ ػ ԴṹẺ
.......... ṹͧѡѴáѺ
.......... ṹͧѡѴáѺĵԡ
.......... (30-) ṹͧäԴẺ 2 ش
.......... (30-) ṹͧäԴẺ⪤ҧ
.......... (30-) ṹͧäԴẺ觹͡˹ͻҡóҵ
.......... ṹ
 
õդṹ÷Ӣͺͧس
ش¢ͧ÷ͺ ͧسѡѺǹСͺ鹰ҹͧäԴҧҧä ͷس è繹ѡԴҧäչ ǢͧѺúҧ š÷ͺйͶ͡ سѵͺ繨ԧҹ
õդá ҤṹͧС Фṹ 㹪ǧ˹㹵ҧҧҧ
ѡѴ ѡѴ ԴẺ ԴẺ ԴẺ ͧš ṹ
Ѻ Ѻĵԡ 2 ⪤ҧ 觹͡˹ ҧ
ҵ ͹Ѵ
٧ҡ >19 >23 >18 >20 >22 >23 >99
٧ 17-19 21-23 16-18 17-20 19-22 21-23 89-99
11-16 16-20 10-15 10-16 11-18 15-20 74-88
3-10 3-15 7-9 6-9 7-10 12-14 63-73
ҡ <8 <3 <7 <6 <7 <12 <63
ǤسԹǧ ¡ҧ ҤṹͷͺѡѴáѺͧس 15 سǧ㹤 ѡѴáѺ㹪ǧ 11-16 ͸Ժ سṹࡳ (average) èѴӴѺǧ鹹鷴ͧӨҡ 700 "ࡳ" ¶֧ سдѺҧ дѺǡѺ 50 % ͧ 700
 
"٧" ¶֧ سдѺǡѺṹ٧ش 25 ૹá
"٧ҡ" дѺǡѺṹ٧ش 5 ૹá
"" дѺǡѺṹش 25 ૹѧ
"ҡ" дѺǡѺṹش 5 ૹش
ѧҡسǧṹҧ 㹵ҧ س礧оͧ ѡɳТͧäԴẺҧä ṹ㹡ѡѴáѺ ѡѴáѺĵԡ٧ Фṹ "٧" 觷һö Сṹ "" ա 4 Ͷ觷һö
ͧԨóҴ 㹡˹سṹдѺ дл¤ ֧Ӥṹ ǹسӤṹ ʴѡɳСäԴҧҧäͧس سý֡ѹҡ ǹسԴẺҧҧä سèе˹ѡ ֡´ ҷҧѺا䢵 㹢鹹§ͧس׹ Ѵѧ ѡʶҹóԴ 觷ʶҹóԴŵͤس 㹢йе Ѵͧ¤Ӷҹ
ʶҹóҹ ѹ֡ҧ
ʶҹóҹ 繻ªͩѹҧ
ʶҹóҹ ѹҡӺҡҧ
ô㨴Ẻͺ 繩Ѻͷ ҹ 繡÷ͺҧ س㨻ҡҷѴ سԴҧä˹ ͺ 鷴ͺöҧ㹡äԴͧس 繡÷ͺ繢ͧس ǡѺǤسͧ ȹФԷسյ͡÷ͺ ռŵͤṹ س֧öͧӹǹṹ ͧԧѧҡԹ þӴѺ ˹سṹࡳ˹ Ҩ繻ªѺͧǤسͧ
 
Ѩ¢ͧäԴҧҧä ҧҧ
ͪ¤س㹡ѧࡵ ẺἹͧ㹡äԴͧس 仹 ͸Ժѡɳй·ͧäԴҧҧä ҧҧ 6 ѡɳ 駡äԴҧäͧҾ
 
ѡɳй·äԴҧä
1) ѡѴáѺ (Emotional Coping)
ѡѴ СѡѴáѺĵԡ (behavioral coping) ǹСͺӤѭش 2 ҧͧԴҧҧä ѡѨ· 2 Ǻѹ зöѴáѺš㹢ͧ֡ š¹ͧ͡˵ءó ҧջԷҾ
ѡѴáѺ öѴѺ֡ źҧջԷҾ ǡѡըԵ㨷ʧ дѺ´ 繤º դ Դͧ 觷蹡ҤԴá ֡ 㨡ѺԴѧҡԹ ԵѧšѺ觷͡˹͡äǺͧ
ԨóͧͤҡԹ ػẺ繹·ҧ (overgeneralize) ջԡҵͺʹͧ˵ءóҡԹ ԴӫҡѺ⪤ʹյ ԵѧšѺ͹ҤҡԹ ѡѴáѺ üԴҴҨͧ ˵ءó§ ԴҴ§ǹ зǵʹԵ
 
2) ѡѴáѺĵԡ (Behavioral Coping)
зèѴáѺ Сͺ仴¤öա§ͧդԴ ֡Ẻź 繡÷µͧ èѴáѺĵԡǡ
ѡѴáѺĵԡ äԴԧԺѵԡ (actionoriented thinking) ѡѴþĵԡ Դ֧ԸշзԴáзӷջԷҾ ͧšբͧ ҡҷҷ С§ դ 觵ҧ еͧ仴´ Ҩͧ Ӥǭ֧ͤ纪ʹյ
ǡҨѺҧǡ 觾ѧͧǡ㹷ҧзἹ ǡҨŧͷӧҹ Ե еͧӧҹѹ˹ ᷹ҹɵͧ ͧԴҴ ǡҨԸػä ҷҧ¨ش͹ҧ ҧǴ ͷ繽º ФǺʶҹó
ѡѴáѺĵԡ Ѻҡ ͧšҡ 繤ŧͷ鹷ӹ ҡҤѡѴáѺ
褹ѴáѺ ѡѺͧҡ 繤Դ硤Դҡ 繤˴¡ ;ǡҾ觷觻ö
ѡѴ СѡѴáѺĵԡ ҧբºͧͧ ͧ੾зҧ ҤФҨդѴ 㹡ѡѴáѺҧ˹ҧ (;ĵԡ) ҡҡѹ Ẻͺ ṹѡѴáѺ ;ĵԡҧҧ˹٧Ҥ Դ¶ѡṹաҧ ٧Ҥ¶´ ѡѴáѺ оĵԡա 繹ѡԴҧä
 
ѡɳз繴ҹçͧäԴẺҧä
1) äԴẺ 2 ش (Categorical Thinking)
ӤṹẺͺ͡ 繤ѡɳСäԴẺ 2 شҡ ʴ繹ѡԴẺµ ͧẺǡ Ѻ дѺҧ ǡͧ繴¡Ѻҡ ԴҴ ᷹Ҥ դԴ繷ᵡҧ͡ ǡѡЪͺԾҡҤ 繾ǡ骹 ǡѡ㹡÷á Ըշ١ͧ§Ը Ըբͧǡ
ͧҡǡͺԴ 2 ش ͧ繷ҧ㹡õѴԹѴਹ ǡҨ֧ѴԹŧͷ§ Դ觷ҷӨж١ͧ Ԩ¾ ѡ繤ԴẺ 2 ǹҡҼ˭ԧ ʴҼѡɳǴ ФԴẺµҡҼ˭ԧ
ͺԴ 2 ش ֡ҪԵ蹤 ͧ繻ѭ ֡յ͵ͧ еѴԹ ੾㹪ǧԡĵ ش͹ ¹ҡʺó Ժ Ѻ蹷ᵡҧ͡
 
2) äԴẺ⪤ҧ (Superstitious Thinking)
դͺҧҧ ʹͧѺš繨ԧ ô ҧ˹ ҡ礧յѧͶǧšѹ ͤ 仾ٴ֧觷ҤҴѧǧ˹ ҡʹ 觹 ҤԴẺҧä蹹 ÷褹ѡɳФԴẺ⪤ҧҡ ѹǡ֧֡º 觷Ҵó ͸Ժ ֡ ẺԴ֡˴ ֡µͧҡ
 
3) äԴẺ觹͡˹ͻҡóҵ (Esoteric Thinking)
¶֧ ⪤ҧẺ ʵ ҧ Ѻ˹͡Ẻá äǺԵ ҧҡԴẺ⪤ҧ ( 2) ǡѡѤԴ觷šҴȨ 繵ͧͧ ѡɳԧ͡ѹ Ԩ¾ ˭ԧѡѡɳйҡҼ ѡɳ繤ԴẺ ѡ繹ѡԴҧä դ´٧ »ʺ ҧҨѡɳԴѺԴ ֧ѺͧẺҧ觾ҡԹ
 
4) ͧšẺ͹Ѵ (Naive Optimism)
ͧšҧ͹Ѵ ¶֧ Сⴴػ ѧҡѺ㹷ҧǡ ǡѺҤ§ǨлСѹ 觵ҧ ͡ҧҵͧ ͺṹդ˹ ʺ㹡ͺɳ˹ ÷褹ѡʴѡͺ᷹ ҡԴ Ҩ͹Ҥ蹤Ȩҡѭա
ͧšҧ͹Ѵ ѡԴẺ ( ءѡ դҡ зӷءҧ) Ҩͧӷҧ
šԧ
ͧšҧ͹Ѵ 繹ѡԴ㹷ҧǡҡԹ ǡդԴ١ͧءҧ Ѻͧ͢ǹ˭ ѧءҧ Դ觵ҧ ҧԧѧ ǡҪͺ餹 餹ͺ (ءͺͧš) դ֡ҷءҧš١ͧ
ҧҡͧšҧ繨ԧ (realistic optimism) ǹ˹觢ͧѡѴáѺĵԡ ͧšҧ͹Ѵ ԴǡҡԹ ҨǷҧἹ ҵáûͧѹ ѺԴҴҨԴ͹Ҥ ҵѴԹ㨼ԴҴ ҵѴԹ㨼ԴҴ¤ ҡҨѧ繤ͧšյ
ͧšҧ͹Ѵ ;ǡҡ ѡػ繹·ҧԹ (overgeneralize) 駨ҡʺó лʺó ҧҨػš ҧͻʺó׷ ҨСⴴػ 繤դѧشҧǴ
ͧšҧ͹Ѵ ǢͧµçѺèѴ 繤Դҧҧä Ǣͧѹ (äԴҧԧ) ѡź (äԴԧǡ) ͧšҧԹ ѺͧФ շȹԵͪԵ㹷ҧǡ ͧԵҧըش շȷҧ ͧšҧ͹Ѵԧ ҢҴҧἹ աѺѺԴҴԴ
 
ѡɳТͧԴҧä
äԴҧҧäҾ ѡɳй· ¡ ͧšҧ͹Ѵ Ǣͧ ͧҡǢͧѹ(äԴҧԧ) ѡҧ (äԴ㹷ҧǡ) ṹäԴҧҧä٧ 繤ѺͧФ ͧԵǡ ͧԵըش зȷҧ ҨФԴǡ ҡͧšҧ͹ѴԹ ͧš繨ԧ 蹡 ѧҧἹѴѧ
繹ѡԴҧä ػ繹·ҧԹ ҡʺóͧ ҷҧǡͷҧź ҨԹͧ٧Թ͵Թ դ㹵ͧͷ༪ԭѺ͹ ФѺ͹ͧš繨ԧ 觾ҡäԴẺ⪤ҧ 觹͡˹ͻҡóҵ äԴԧʺóѵѵԢͧ ֡ǡѺͧФ öѴáѺ㹷ҧźդ֧´·ش öѴѭһШҧջԷҾ
ѡɳзӤѭͧԴẺҧä ǡ繤ѭ (problem oriented) ҡҷзӵẺԾҡҵѴԹö١üԴ ǡǧ˹ҧѭҷ ҡҷеյҵͧͤҴ
觷Ӥѭش ѡԴҧä繹ѡԴ״ (flexible thinkers) ǡһѺäԴͧҵʶҹó¹ŧ öͧ繷駴ҹ״ дҹҧͧѭ ;ǡշҧ͡˵ؼ§ѹ Ҩ͡ҹҧҡ ѹФ դآҡ ʶҹóǹ˭ ͡ҹҧԸաôԹԵջԷҾ ҡҡ͡ҹ״ͧѭ
 
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